Date of Award

Spring 1980

Document Type




First Advisor

John Ward

Second Advisor

James Manion

Third Advisor

Thomas Hamilton


The name rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was introduced by Dr. Sir Alfred Baring Garrod in the nineteenth century when he was able to distinguish between it and gout by an elevation of uric acid in the latter. 1 It is possible that many historic figures had RA including Constantine IX, Christopher Columbus, Mary, Queen 2 of Scots, and President James Madison. Additionally, it has been suggested that Hippocrates alluded to the disorder in many of his writings. Although schools of thought differ as to the existence of RA in earlier times, evidence of articular erosive disease in Indian skeletal remains collected by the Museum 4 of Anthropology in Mexico City may settle this point. Also, further X-ray evaluations of bones from ancient Egyptian pharohs may offer additional insight into this question.