Date of Award

Spring 1949

Document Type



Life & Environmental Sciences

First Advisor

Patrick Murray


The use of models in the study of all biological sciences has proved most helpful, especially in Embryology. Without models, a student of Embryology cannot easily visualize the third dimension of a subject as small as an embryo. Models made of clay are useful for simple demonstrations, but lack permanency. Models made of fragile materials are unsatisfactory, because of breakage when handled frequently by students. A model of preference is a model that is practically unbreakable, of relatively easy construction, and inexpensive. J.M. Essenberg, of the Chicago Medical School, developed such a model by using a foundation of wire and a surface of self-hardening clay. A model of a pig embryo of 10 millimeters was constructed as a partial requirement for this thesis; the Essenberg technic was generally followed, and I gratefully acknowledge the use of his work.