Date of Award

Spring 2008

Document Type



Life & Environmental Sciences

First Advisor

Grant Hokit

Second Advisor

Ron Wilde

Third Advisor

Samuel Alvey


Geometric morphometric analysis was performed on three populations of Columbia Spotted Frog in Western Montana. The purpose was to examine the utility and sensitivity of this sort of analysis to morphometrically discriminate populations. Specimens were captured by hand, photographed, and released. Data was uploaded into a computer, landmarked, and analyzed. MANCOVA revealed significant differences between all three sample groups. Geometric morphometries was determined to be a reliable and accurate tool in distinguishing between separate populations of the same species, and determining the amount of variation existing among sample groups. It was also shown to be a sensitive tool, capable of detecting variation among populations with distances of 1.6 kilometers and 112 kilometers between sampling sites.