The effects of the homeopathic supplements, Addrell and StressCalm, on hyper- and hypoactivity in Tetrahymena thermophila

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Authors
Bailey, Marguerite
Field, Cameren
Advisor
Otto-Hitt, Stefanie
Editor
Date of Issue
2023-04-28
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Citation
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Title
The effects of the homeopathic supplements, Addrell and StressCalm, on hyper- and hypoactivity in Tetrahymena thermophila
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Presentation
Description
Abstract
In the United States alone, approximately 20% of adults have been diagnosed with a mental illness, resulting in the increased usage of prescription mood-altering medications. In looking for alternative treatment options, consumers have turned to homeopathic supplements that allegedly mimic the effects of these medications. For example, Addrell is marketed as an alternative to prescription stimulants while StressCalm is being marketed as a mood stabilizer. Unlike prescription medications, homeopathic supplements are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and their claims of effectiveness are not substantiated by research. The objective of this study was to determine whether Addrell and StressCalm affect energy production and related behaviors in the model organism, Tetrahymena thermophila. Based on their marketing, it was hypothesized that Addrell and StressCalm would alter the expression of genes related to energy production, namely SLC1, ACO1, and AAC1, and affect motility, growth, feeding and metabolic rates of T. thermophila. To investigate this hypothesis, experimental T. thermophila were exposed to appropriately scaled doses of either Addrell or StressCalm for 48 hours. Following the exposure, motility, growth, feeding, and deciliation assays were performed on the T. thermophila along with RNA extraction and RT-qPCR to measure expression of SLC1, ACO1, and AAC1. Addrell exposure was predicted to induce hyperactivity, causing escalated motility, growth, feeding, and metabolic rate along with increased expression of AAC1, ACO1, and SLC. Meanwhile, StressCalm was predicted to induce hypoactivity, resulting in decreased motility, growth, feeding and metabolic rate as well as reduced expression of SLC1, AAC1, and ACO1.
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Semester
Spring
Department
Biochemistry-Molecular Biology