The Long-Term Developmental Outcomes of Caffeine Therapy: A Systematic Review
Objective: To review relevant literature regarding long-term developmental impacts of caffeine therapy on infants with apnea of prematurity.
Methods: Literature was gathered through PubMed and CINAHL and assessed for any long-term developmental effects of caffeine citrate treatment. Interventions included caffeine citrate administered at the recommended clinical dosage, early vs. late caffeine therapy and higher doses of caffeine.
Results: The reviewed literature supported the idea that caffeine citrate is beneficial to premature infants experiencing apnea. There was no common linkage of caffeine therapy and negative long-term developmental impacts. Caffeine therapy proved beneficial in major outcomes such as neurobehavioral development and motor development. Caffeine also showed a decreased rate in risks such as death and disability.
Conclusions: The use of caffeine citrate as treatment for apnea of prematurity has shown positive long-term developmental impacts in neurobehavior and motor development. Alternative outcomes regarding possible negative effects of such treatments should be studied further.
Keywords: Apnea; prematurity; caffeine therapy; birth; long-term development, infant