Chemistry and Physics Undergraduate Theses


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 51
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    Studies Towards the Acceleration of Diels-Alder Reactions using η6-metal Arene Complex Substituents
    (2024) Lohar, Noah; Hitt, David; Rowley, John; Beck, Ashley
    The Diels-Alder (DA) reaction is a cycloaddition reaction between a conjugated diene and a two-atom π system (dienophile) that forms an unsaturated six-membered ring. DA reactions under normal electron-demand conditions (diene is electron rich) are limited by the dienophile requiring an electron-withdrawing group (EWG) to proceed at a reasonable rate. These EWGs, in short, are functional groups conjugated with the π system that can act as π acceptors, most commonly nitriles, carbonyl functional groups (e.g. ketones,esters, etc.), and nitro groups. The complexation of a monocationic (𝜂5-cyclopentadienyl)metal fragment (CpM+) to the π system of a benzenoid compound in an 𝜂6 configuration results in significant electron withdrawal from substituents attached to the aryl ring. This functionality, therefore, may expand the applicability of the Diels-Alder reaction to progress by utilizing the CpM(𝜂6-aryl) substituent as activating dienophile substituents. Towards this goal, we have isolated the DA adduct between CpRu(η6-ethyl trans-cinnamate)PF6 and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene. Characterization of the adduct has been assigned on the basis of 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and IR spectra. This research also explored the synthesis of an analogous iron complex, CpFe(η6-ethyl trans-cinnamate)PF6, to accelerate DA reactions. Compared to ruthenium, iron offers many advantages primarily due to its abundance compared to ruthenium. Herein, we report our progress in synthesizing CpFe(η6-ethyl trans-cinnamate)PF6.
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    A Qualitative Analysis Of Electrical Discharge In Air
    (1962-04-01) Simperman, Roy; William Lannan
    The purpose of this paper is to present the fundamental ideas of the gaseous electrical discharge and to experimentally verify those presented ideas. Chapter I deals with the theoretical description of the discharge in a manner that is easy to read accompanied by enough detail to enable various phases of the discharge to be experimentally preformed. Chapter II presents this experimental qualitative analysis. If a potential is applied across two electrodes of an evacuated tube, the phenomenon of electrical discharge through a gas may be observed. There are several general types of discharge that may be witnessed. If a high potential is used and the pressure within the tube is atmospheric, the discharge will take the form of a spark discharge with "explosive like" sounds or a sharp crack. As the pressure is decreased the discharge begins to take on thread like characteristics and then gradually assumes a continuous glow as the pressure is further decreased. This continuous discharge is known as the glow discharge. Another type of discharge which is usually affiliated with high current densities is called the arc discharge. The discharge here appears as a continuous arc from one electrode to the other. Under still other situations the discharge takes the form of streamers which appear on either electrode and extend out some distance and disappear, as shown in Figure 1. There is also one other type of discharge which occurs before any visible radiation and is known as the dark discharge. This phenomenon is termed a discharge since current is passing through the tube at this stage. This paper will deal primarily with the glow discharge since this was the discharge that was experimentally observed.
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    Studies into the synthesis of alkyne dienophiles with n6 - Ruthenium Arene Complex Substituents
    (2019-04-01) Moses, Alexander; David Hitt; Brandon Sheafor; Julie Kessler
    In organic chemistry, ?6-metal arene complexes constitute a class of valuable intermediates in organic synthesis due to the metals ability to act as a strong electron withdrawing group.1-9 While known for being an electron withdrawing group, little research regarding their ability to accelerate the Diels-Alder (DA) reaction - which is known to be accelerated by electron-withdrawing dienophile substituents -has been done. Previous work by the Hitt research group has strongly suggested that the DA reaction can be accelerated by an alkene dienophile with a ?6 -ruthenium arene substituent.10 However, the effects of using an alkyne dienophile with a ?6 -ruthenium arene substituent have not been explored. Herein we report the synthesis of model dienophile precursor 3-phenyl-2-propenoic acid ethyl ester via an acyl substitution reaction. We also report our three attempts at synthesizing the alkyne dienophile [CpRu(?6-(3-phenyl-2-propenoic acid ethyl ester ))]PF6 . Unfortunately, after these three attempts, no product was obtained. It was thought that the alkyne in 3-phenyl-2-propenoic acid ethyl ester acted is a strong ligand to the CpRu+ moiety thus inhibiting complexation to the aryl ring.
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    Philosophical Concerns of Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics
    (1972-04-01) O'Fallon, James; Guido Bugni; Walter Jankowski; Noel Bowman
    This thesis is written in the hope of providing a conspectus of the philosophical concerns of the intermingling branches of chemistry, physics and mathematics. Different perhaps are their names and some of their goals, hut nevertheless these three branches of science interpret reality along the same lines of thought and hence their philosophical concerns are the same, with this in mind it is the scope of this thesis to take a look at the language, methods and limitations of these sciences in the light of what they say about ultimate reality.
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    The Infrared Spectrum Of Dichloromethylene And Difluoromethylene
    (1973-04-01) Beaulieu, William
    This paper attempts to study the infrared spectrum of possible free radicals obtainable from the parent gas dichlorodifluoromethane.