Chemistry and Physics Undergraduate Theses

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    A Qualitative Analysis Of Electrical Discharge In Air
    (1962-04-01) Simperman, Roy; William Lannan
    The purpose of this paper is to present the fundamental ideas of the gaseous electrical discharge and to experimentally verify those presented ideas. Chapter I deals with the theoretical description of the discharge in a manner that is easy to read accompanied by enough detail to enable various phases of the discharge to be experimentally preformed. Chapter II presents this experimental qualitative analysis. If a potential is applied across two electrodes of an evacuated tube, the phenomenon of electrical discharge through a gas may be observed. There are several general types of discharge that may be witnessed. If a high potential is used and the pressure within the tube is atmospheric, the discharge will take the form of a spark discharge with "explosive like" sounds or a sharp crack. As the pressure is decreased the discharge begins to take on thread like characteristics and then gradually assumes a continuous glow as the pressure is further decreased. This continuous discharge is known as the glow discharge. Another type of discharge which is usually affiliated with high current densities is called the arc discharge. The discharge here appears as a continuous arc from one electrode to the other. Under still other situations the discharge takes the form of streamers which appear on either electrode and extend out some distance and disappear, as shown in Figure 1. There is also one other type of discharge which occurs before any visible radiation and is known as the dark discharge. This phenomenon is termed a discharge since current is passing through the tube at this stage. This paper will deal primarily with the glow discharge since this was the discharge that was experimentally observed.
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    Philosophical Concerns of Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics
    (1972-04-01) O'Fallon, James; Guido Bugni; Walter Jankowski; Noel Bowman
    This thesis is written in the hope of providing a conspectus of the philosophical concerns of the intermingling branches of chemistry, physics and mathematics. Different perhaps are their names and some of their goals, hut nevertheless these three branches of science interpret reality along the same lines of thought and hence their philosophical concerns are the same, with this in mind it is the scope of this thesis to take a look at the language, methods and limitations of these sciences in the light of what they say about ultimate reality.
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    Studies into the synthesis of alkyne dienophiles with n6 - Ruthenium Arene Complex Substituents
    (2019-04-01) Moses, Alexander; David Hitt; Brandon Sheafor; Julie Kessler
    In organic chemistry, ?6-metal arene complexes constitute a class of valuable intermediates in organic synthesis due to the metals ability to act as a strong electron withdrawing group.1-9 While known for being an electron withdrawing group, little research regarding their ability to accelerate the Diels-Alder (DA) reaction - which is known to be accelerated by electron-withdrawing dienophile substituents -has been done. Previous work by the Hitt research group has strongly suggested that the DA reaction can be accelerated by an alkene dienophile with a ?6 -ruthenium arene substituent.10 However, the effects of using an alkyne dienophile with a ?6 -ruthenium arene substituent have not been explored. Herein we report the synthesis of model dienophile precursor 3-phenyl-2-propenoic acid ethyl ester via an acyl substitution reaction. We also report our three attempts at synthesizing the alkyne dienophile [CpRu(?6-(3-phenyl-2-propenoic acid ethyl ester ))]PF6 . Unfortunately, after these three attempts, no product was obtained. It was thought that the alkyne in 3-phenyl-2-propenoic acid ethyl ester acted is a strong ligand to the CpRu+ moiety thus inhibiting complexation to the aryl ring.
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    The Infrared Spectrum Of Dichloromethylene And Difluoromethylene
    (1973-04-01) Beaulieu, William
    This paper attempts to study the infrared spectrum of possible free radicals obtainable from the parent gas dichlorodifluoromethane.
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    The Radiation And Directive Characteristics Of Antenna Arrays
    (1939-04-01) Collins, John
    An understanding of the mechanism by which energy is radiated from an antenna is the purpose of this thesis. It was generally believed, until 1920, that radio waves traveled in an ever expanding circle, like the ripples created by a pebble falling into still water. If left to their own devices, radio waves from a vertical antenna will travel in this manner, but as the number of broadcasting stations increased it was necessary to control these radiations. Ways have been devised to make the waves travel in the form of a shamrock, a four-leaf clover, a double watermelon, or an airplane propeller. These are only a few examples of what are called field patterns. A radio engineer named Southworth explored this field and discovered 60 possible patterns for a two tower antenna installation. This same man worked out all the possible combinations up to 48 towers, and in this work discovered that a pencil of radio energy no wider than a highway which stretched for thousands of miles could be formed. This system is now used in trans-ooeanic broadcasting service. In 1927 the United States Government, by the creation of the Federal Communications Commission, placed restrictions as to frequency and power on all broadcasting stations within the territory belonging to the United States. This action resulted In an incomplete coverage of the broadcasting station’s territory. Increasing power was out of the question so the only way was to use a more efficient directive antenna. In the fall of 1933, WIND, at Gary, Indiana, was the second station in the United States to use a directive antenna. The purpose of the antenna was to concentrate as much energy as possible in Chicago, and not waste it covering Lake Michigan, Mae system worked well and established definitely the value of directive antennas. The merit of a directional antenna is most conveniently measured in terms of the antenna gain, which is defined as "the power that must be supplied to a standard comparison antenna to radiate a given field strength in the desired direction, divided by the power that must be supplied to the directive antenna to accomplish the same result." A gain of 100 means that the directive antenna requires only 1/100 as much power to produce a given field strength in the desired direction as does the comparison antenna. The comparison antenna is usually taken either as a wire one-half wave length long and at an arbitrary orientation and height above the earth, or as a very short vertical wire.An understanding of the mechanism by which energy is radiated from an antenna is the purpose of this thesis. It was generally believed, until 1920, that radio waves traveled in an ever expanding circle, like the ripples created by a pebble falling into still water. If left to their own devices, radio waves from a vertical antenna will travel in this manner, but as the number of broadcasting stations increased it was necessary to control these radiations. Ways have been devised to make the waves travel in the form of a shamrock, a four-leaf clover, a double watermelon, or an airplane propeller. These are only a few examples of what are called field patterns. A radio engineer named Southworth explored this field and discovered 60 possible patterns for a two tower antenna installation. This same man worked out all the possible combinations up to 48 towers, and in this work discovered that a pencil of radio energy no wider than a highway which stretched for thousands of miles could be formed. This system is now used in trans-ooeanic broadcasting service. In 1927 the United States Government, by the creation of the Federal Communications Commission, placed restrictions as to frequency and power on all broadcasting stations within the territory belonging to the United States. This action resulted In an incomplete coverage of the broadcasting station’s territory. Increasing power was out of the question so the only way was to use a more efficient directive antenna. In the fall of 1933, WIND, at Gary, Indiana, was the second station in the United States to use a directive antenna. The purpose of the antenna was to concentrate as much energy as possible in Chicago, and not waste it covering Lake Michigan, Mae system worked well and established definitely the value of directive antennas. The merit of a directional antenna is most conveniently measured in terms of the antenna gain, which is defined as "the power that must be supplied to a standard comparison antenna to radiate a given field strength in the desired direction, divided by the power that must be supplied to the directive antenna to accomplish the same result." A gain of 100 means that the directive antenna requires only 1/100 as much power to produce a given field strength in the desired direction as does the comparison antenna. The comparison antenna is usually taken either as a wire one-half wave length long and at an arbitrary orientation and height above the earth, or as a very short vertical wire.